For example, pollen contaminated with the Ilarvirus Tobacco streak virus is carried both internally and externally by the thrips, and infection occurs via wounds caused by thrip feeding (Sdoodee and Teakle, 1993). This biopesticide is derived from the fermentation of an Actinomyces bacterium, commonly found in the soil. Protection of UV-absorbing films from thrips immigration. In these cases, the best strategy is to keep the crop free of thrips at least during the most vulnerable period of the crop (i.e.
Thrips tabaci population genetic structure and polyploidy in relation to competency as a vector of tomato spotted wilt virus.
USA.gov. The Mantel test showed no correlation between genetic distance and geographical distances. Protection of UV-absorbing films from aphids’ immigration.
Ilarviruses and CLRV are pollen- and seed-borne, giving rise to infected seedlings. Thismicroorganism is most effective when used early before large thrips populations have built up.
Several generations can develop in a year. Jacobson AL, Nault BA, Vargo EL, Kennedy GG. When foraging bees visit flowers, such horizontal virus or viroid transmission occurs via wounds in flower tissues or when mother plant infection develops via the fertilized ovule (Antignus et al., 2007; Boylan-Pett et al., 1991).
Thrips attack a wide number of vegetables, fruit and flower crops and cereals. Functional Characterization of Chemosensory Protein AmalCSP5 From Apple Buprestid Beetle, Banks Grass Mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) Suppression May Add to the Benefit of Drought-Tolerant Corn Hybrids Exposed to Water Stress, Evaluation of Two-Leaf Sampling Units to Estimate Sugarcane Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Economic Thresholds in Commercial Grain Sorghum, First Evidence of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Overwintering in the Province of Québec (Canada), Profile of Fork-Tailed Bush Katydid (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) Feeding on Fruit of Clementine Mandarins, About the Entomological Society of America, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2020 Entomological Society of America. (2016) considered transmission between parental plants and their own progeny to be direct vertical pollen transmission, but transmission to the progeny of any other plant to be indirect vertical pollen transmission.
However, thrips reduction is not necessarily translated in yield increase.
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Heredity (Edinb). The stage of growth when an infestation occurs seems to determine the extent of yield loss. 0000001712 00000 n
Some thrips (e.g. This intimate biological association between tospoviruses and their thrips vectors had created possibilities for evolution and shifting preferences and specificities between individual tospoviruses and thrips species.
Adult thrips overwinter in plant debris, bark, or other materials. In the case of onions, randomly sample plants and evaluate thrips numbers and damage under leaf folds. Trapping of Frankliniella occidentalis in “walk-in” tunnels covered with either nonabsorbing polyethylene film (IR) or a UV-absorbing polyethylene film (IR-V). Pappu, in Encyclopedia of Virology (Third Edition), 2008.
Both onion thrips and western flower thrips attack a wide range of plants including cereals and broadleaved crops.
The first application starts 30 days after emergence of the five leaf stage, subsequent to the Gaucho® protection period.
2016 Oct;45(5):1235-1242 Tomato crops grown in “walk- in” tunnels covered with a UV-absorbing polyethylene were highly protected against the immigration of B. tabaci (Fig. ICIPE, Nairobi, Kenya. The foregut and hindgut are of ectodermal origin lined by a thick impermeable cuticle, and the midgut is endodermal with a soft inner epithelial cell layer.
Three decades of managing Tomato spotted wilt virus in peanut in southeastern United States. 0000010443 00000 n
trailer ISBN: 0-85199-178-5.UC Pest Management Guidelines: How to Manage Pests. “Neglected” means mostly disregarded. Plant Cell Physiol.
1.5) (Antignus et al., 1996; Raviv & Antignus, 2004).
Loss of first-position squares can have detrimental effects on the yield potential of the plant. The colour spectrum of the boards is important for the efficacy of the sticky traps. 0000008767 00000 n Restricted Gene Flow among Lineages of Thrips tabaci Supports Genetic Divergence Among Cryptic Species Groups. They become active in early spring and lay eggs in plant tissue. Edited by T. Lewis. Indeed, so far pollen transmission has been studied only in a few commercially important perennial or annual crops, and rarely, if ever, in wild plants growing in natural environments. anthocorid bugs or minute pirate bugs (Orius spp. (1974) attributed widespread RBDV infection in field plots of healthy raspberry plants entirely to horizontal pollen transmission because within 2 years most plants that were allowed to flower became RBDV infected. There is no evidence of transovarial transmission. These viruses have rather limited economic importance due to their limited incidence, and for this reason, only a short description is given. Environmental stress that weakens plants makes them more susceptible to thrips attack. TSWV is transmissible by mechanical inoculation, also by seeds and vegetative reproductive organs in several plants. The first reported vector of TSWV was T. tabaci, which was long believed to be the main thrips vector (Pittman, 1927; Sakimura, 1962). Oluwafemi S, Bruce TJ, Pickett JA, Ton J, Birkett MA. Viruses. ISBN: 92 9064 149 5 www.icipe.org, Further below you find concrete preventive and curative methods against, Hi!
ISBN: 0-85199-178-5.OISAT: Organisation for Non-Chemical Pest Management in the Tropics.
From: Plant Virology (Fifth Edition), 2014, P. Jeschke, R. Nauen, in Comprehensive Molecular Insect Science, 2005. It is the only genus of Bunyaviridae that includes a virus infecting plant. |
In addition, injuries caused by thrips feeding may serve as entry point for bacterial or fungal pathogens.
Jacobson AL, Booth W, Vargo EL, Kennedy GG. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. 0000005416 00000 n Fourteen species of thrips of the family Thripidae have been described as vectors of the virus, the best-known species are Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom), Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom), Frankliniella tenuicornis (Uzel), Thrips tabaci (Lind. High gene flow between locations with substantial geographical distances suggested that migration of T. tabaci across China might be facilitated through human activities.
The results of demographic analysis suggested that T. tabaci in China have undergone a recent demographic expansion.
2015 Feb 24;4:89
These properties, as well as their high reproduction rate and polyphagy, make thrips difficult to control (Morse and Hoddle, 2006). Insect.
Despite its dispersion, its competence for transmission was assessed only in one laboratory trial (Wijkamp et al., 1995). PLoS One.
0000006721 00000 n 32 0 obj <> endobj Infested terminals lose their colour, roll, and drop leaves prematurely. 0000003078 00000 n
2018 Aug;44(7-8):681-689. doi: 10.1007/s10886-018-0973-x. eCollection 2017.
Long-distance spread occurred when colonies containing PNRSV- and BLMV-contaminated pollen were transported between distant locations (Boylan-Pett et al., 1991; Mink, 1993). Of the 5000 or so species of thrips, only 17 species, all in the family Thripidae, are reported as vectors of plant viruses (Table 12.3).
and in Greece.
Among other thrips vectors, F. schultzei and T. palmi are noted for their efficiency in tospovirus transmission, but mostly in regions outside the Mediterranean area.
The L segment is a negative sense RNA, whereas the S and M segments are ambisens (Moyer, 1999). Thrips may also cause cosmetic damage to plants.
Frankliniella fusca prefers feeding on young plants whereas F. occidentalis shows no settling preference in relation to leaf age (Joost and Riley, 2008). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0138353. Map showing collection sites of Australian populations of T. tabaci from onion, potato…, Phylogenetic analysis (The evolutionary history…, Phylogenetic analysis (The evolutionary history was inferred using the Maximum Likelihood method based…, NLM Photoselective greenhouse cladding materials can serve as mega filters to eliminate parts of the UV light spectrum, thus inhibiting insect development and virus epidemics (Antignus et al., 1996). Thrips pierce cells and suck up the contents, leaving white specks.