Depending on the gender, the numbers will have different forms for each of the three genders: masculine nouns will be un-doi; feminine nouns, o-două; neuter nouns, un-două. No prepositions take nouns in the nominative case. El îmi spune.- this is the regular way of translating the sentence. are revised periodically to include new tendencies in the language.[4][5][6][7][8][9]. If the noun is determined by a determiner other than the definite article (an indefinite article, a demonstrative, an indefinite quantifier), then the genitive-dative affixes are applied to this determiner, not to the noun, for example un băiat - unui băiat (a boy - of/to a boy); for feminine nouns the form used in the dative/genitive singular is most often identical to the nominative plural, for example o carte - unei cărți - două cărți (a book - of/to a book - two books). The polite pronouns were derived from old Romanian phrases used for addressing the sovereign, such as Domnia Ta, Domnia Voastră, Domnia Lui ("Your Majesty", "Your Majesty (plural)", "His Majesty", literally "Your Reign", etc.). Thank you very much, Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, and Istro-Romanian. Just as in Russian, in Romanian there is no gender-neutral form for numbers, adjectives or other noun determiners. The stressed form of the pronoun is used (in phrases that are not inverted) after the verb while the unstressed form is employed before the verb. In the plural, the ending -i corresponds generally to masculine nouns, whereas feminine and neuter nouns often end in -e. As there are many exceptions to these rules, each noun must be learned together with its gender. In usual genitival phrases such as numele trandafirului (the name of the rose), the genitive is only recognized by the specific ending (-lui in this example) and no other words are necessary. Pronouns in the vocative case in Romanian, which is used for exclamations, or summoning, also take the forms of the nominative case. The accusative forms of the pronouns come in two forms: a stressed and an unstressed form:[16]. "Valori referențiale generate de articolul definit și de cel indefinit românesc în determinarea substantivului.

The tendency in contemporary Romanian is to use the nominative forms, however. The main clause, within a complex sentence, does not rely on another sentence to be fully understood. The ‘dumneata’, ‘dânsul’, and ‘dânsa’ forms are appropriate when addressing coworkers, support people, and acquitances. sg. [10][11][12] Nouns which in their dictionary form (singular, nominative, with no article) end in a consonant or the vowel/semivowel -u are mostly masculine or neuter; if they end in -ă or -a they are usually feminine. Note that some prepositions of this sort have evolved from phrases with feminine nouns and, as a consequence, require a feminine possessive form when the object is a pronoun; e.g., împotriva mea (against me). Usually, the verb ending provides information about the subject. To describe a complex sentence (or compound sentence), Romanian uses the word frază, which can cause confusion with the English word phrase, which describes not a complex sentence, but a grouping of words. There are adjectives that have distinct forms for all combinations, others that don't distinguish gender, and a few that don't distinguish either gender or number. Adjectives in Romanian inflect for number and gender (and for case in the feminine singular genitive/dative). As a Romance language, Romanian shares many characteristics with its more distant relatives: Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan, etc. Romanian dative phrases exhibit clitic doubling similar to that in Spanish, in which the noun in the dative is doubled by a pronoun. The position of this pronoun in the sentence depends on the mood and tense of the verb. If the group contains elements of both genders, the masculine form is used. Standard Romanian (i.e. The preposition before a noun determines which case the noun must take.

Rather, they coordinate an existing clause with another, making the new clause of the same type as the other one. Dative is a difficult case in Romanian because it actually splits in two forms and UNFORTUNATELY they don't exactly look the same. While in the previous lesson we dealt with the Nominative case, in this lesson we'll be focusing on the personal lesson in the Accusative case. For a "dramatical" effect this form goes on the very first position BEFORE everything else. It is seen as a mark of unrefined speech by the majority of city-dwellers, who refrain from its usage. These pronouns describe objects which are either close to the speaker, or farther away from the speaker (formal register/informal register):[16], These pronouns describe objects either different from an aforementioned object or the same:[16]. Masculine proper names designating people form the genitive-dative by placing the article lui before the noun: lui Brâncuși (of/to Brâncuși); the same applies to feminine names only when they don't have a typically feminine ending: lui Carmen. The sentences are also separated and numbered. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. It relies on a main clause to give it meaning. While the ‘tu’ form is extremely familiar and therefore used only when addressing family members, close friends, and children, it may be considered an insult if addressed to people who do not fall into these categories. [15], Syntactical functions of the adjective can be:[15], An adjective also can have degrees of comparison.[15]. It was a wrong copy paste of the singular. Just to help you we have added as a reference point the Nominative form of the personal pronouns: 3rd Masc. There are many indefinite pronouns, but only a limited number of negative pronouns. These enclitic definite articles are believed to have been formed, as in other Romance languages, from Latin demonstrative pronouns. In Romanian grammar, unlike English, the words representing numbers are considered to form a distinct part of speech, called numeral (plural: numerale). However, in other situations, usually if the noun modified by the genitive attribute is indefinite, the genitival article is required, as for example in câteva opere ale scriitorului (some of the writer's works). They are usually omitted in Romanian unless it is necessary to disambiguate the meaning of a sentence. And I'm talking here about the Dative and Accusative forms of the pronouns. as being masculine in the singular and feminine in the plural (see below)[2] and even in diachronic terms certain linguists have argued that this pattern, as well as that of case differentiation, was in a sense "re-invented" rather than a "direct" continuation of the Latin neuter. Romanian has totally different forms for these two cases. Samuil Micu and Gheorghe Șincai, published in 1780. The genitive forms of the pronouns (also called possessive pronouns, pronume posesive):[16]. The coordinating conjunctions are of four types (note that the list is not exhaustive): An example of two main clauses (1, 2) linked together by a coordinative conjunction (bold) is: Two subordinate clauses (2, 3) can also be joined to the same end: The same effect of two main clauses (1, 2) being tied together can also be achieved via juxtaposition of the sentences using a comma: Clauses introduced by coordinating conjunctions, James E. Augerot, "Romanian / Limba română: A Course in Modern Romanian," Center for Romanian Studies (2000), Laura Daniliuc and Radu Daniliuc, "Descriptive Romanian Grammar: An Outline," Lincom Europa, München, Germany (2000), Gheorghe Doca, "Romanian language.